Legislative Basis for Animal Welfare in the EU
European Community legislation on farm animal welfare dates back to 1974. Animal welfare principles were set out by the Protocol on the Protection and Welfare of Animals annexed to the Treaty of Amsterdam (1999) and were restated in Art 13 of The Treaty of Lisbon (2009). The Protocol recognizes that animals are sentient beings and stipulates that: “In formulating and implementing the Union’s agriculture, fisheries, transport, internal market, research and technological development and space policies, the Union and the Member States shall pay full regard to the welfare requirements of animals, while respecting the legislative or administrative provisions and customs of the Member States relating in particular to religious rites, cultural traditions and regional heritage.” When Member States fail to apply Community rules, the Commission may consider opening an infringement procedure under Article 226 of the Treaty.
EU Platform on Animal Welfare
In January 2017, the EU agreed on installing a Platform on Animal Welfare. The platform will consist of representatives of business and professional organisations, organisations from civil society and independent experts from academic and research institutes with expertise in animal welfare. Its goal is to enhance better application of EU rules on animal welfare, to stimulate voluntary commitments by businesses to further improve animal welfare and to promote EU animal welfare standards to valorise the market value of the Union’s products at the global level.
EU Animal Welfare Strategy for 2012 – 2015
This new platform is meant to be the successor of the EU Animal Welfare Strategy for 2012 – 2015, which was based on a consultancy report Evaluation of the EU policy on Animal Welfare from December 2010. This strategy was in response to a European Parliament Evaluation Report of the EU Action Plan on the Protection and Welfare of Animals 2006-2010. The focus of 2012-2015 strategy focused on:
- Animal welfare for pets, especially cats and dogs;
- Animal welfare for farmed species for which no legislation exists like dairy cows, fish, rabbits, turkeys, other;
- Better implementation of existing legislation through enhanced monitoring and enforcement at member state level; and,
- Further development of a common understanding of animal welfare issues at the international level.
The first EU Action Plan on the Protection and Welfare of Animals 2006-2010 included initiatives in 5 broad areas of animal welfare:
- Upgrading minimum standards for animal protection and welfare;
- Giving high priority to promoting policy-oriented research and the application of the “3Rs” principle (Replacement, Reduction and Refinement of the use of animals in experiments) to animal testing;
- Introducing standardized animal welfare indicators;
- Ensuring that animal handlers and the general public are more involved and informed on animal welfare issues; and,
- Supporting and initiating further international initiatives to raise awareness of, and create greater consensus on, animal welfare.
Animal Welfare Labeling
On October 28, 2009, the European Commission published a report outlining a series of policy options for animal welfare labeling. The report also considers the possible establishment of a “European Network of Reference Centers for the Protection and Welfare of Animals” (ENRC). The ENRC would provide technical support for the development and implementation of a variety of animal welfare policies including labeling and certification. The stated objective of both initiatives is not to raise animal welfare standards as such but to increase consumer understanding of animal welfare and provide an incentive to producers to increase the welfare of animals. The Commission report does not endorse any of the animal welfare labeling options but identifies legislative and non-legislative options which are considered to be the most feasible at this stage. The finding presented in the report will now form the basis for an in-depth debate between the Commission, the Council and the European Parliament. For detailed information on the Commission report see: Animal Welfare Labeling -European Commission Report (GAIN report E49084 – November 19, 2009
- DG Consumers & Health Protection – Animal Welfare
- European Food Safety Authority – Animal Welfare
- Council Regulation 1099/2009 on the protection of animals at the time of killing
- Council Directive 2008/120/EC laying down minimum standards for the protection of pigs (February 2009)
- Communication from the Commission on the various systems of rearing laying hens (January 8, 2008)
- Council Directive 2007/43/EC laying down minimum rules for the protection of chickens kept for meat production (June 28, 2007)
- Eurogroup for animal welfare
- EU launches Animal Strategy 2012-2015 (GAIN report E70025 – June 2012)
- EU reviews Regulation on Animal Welfare during transportation (GAIN report E60074 – December 2011)
- Implementation of Animal Welfare Directives in the EU (GAIN report E60042 – July 2011)
- Animal Welfare Labeling -European Commission Report (GAIN report E49084 – November 19, 2009)
- “EC engages on Universal Declaration on Animal Welfare” (GAIN report E49028 – March 2009)
- “EU hosts global conference on trade and farm animal welfare” (GAIN report E49016 – February 2009)