Difference between a Regulation, Directive and Decision
The aims set out in the EU treaties are achieved by several types of legal act. Some are binding, others are not. Some apply to all EU countries, others to just a few.
Regulations have binding legal force throughout every Member State and enter into force on a set date in all the Member States.
Directives lay down certain results that must be achieved but each Member State is free to decide how to transpose directives into national laws.
Decisions are EU laws relating to specific cases and directed to individual or several Member States, companies or private individuals. They are binding upon those to whom they are directed.
Example: Commission Implementing Decision 2016/1189 authorizing UV-treated milk as a novel food (see Article 3)
Recommendations are not binding. A recommendation allows the institutions to make their views known and to suggest a line of action without imposing any legal obligation on those to whom it is addressed.
Opinions are not binding. An opinion is an instrument that allows the institutions to make a statement in a non-binding fashion, in other words without imposing any legal obligation on those to whom it is addressed.